A detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of surfactantswith “cleaning properties in dilute solutions.Soaps, washing powders, liquid and other chemicals act the function of removing the soil, stains, oils, and greasy partials from the fibers.On the basis of water reaction, there are four types of detergents
- Non ionic
A negatively charged ion having the abilities to dissolve the fats or lipids molecules in the cleaning action. A lot of detergents belong to this group mainly sulfonate and sulfate products including the long chain fatty acid alkyl aryl sulfonate , alcohol sulfonate,sulfonated ether,Olefin sulfates and sulfonates,Alkane sulfonates and phosphoenol .
Cationic are the opposite of the an ionic detergents as it carries the positive charges with the ability to dissolve the fats and oils particles. Cationic detergents chemicals are not use for cleaning as they have the strong caustic and alkali chemicals properties which act as anti-germicide.
These are toxic behavior in nature and use for maturing the fiber colors.
Nonionic detergents do not make any ion in the water which are made by animal fats, alcohol, amides, and amines molecules. These detergent mostly use with other detergents.
Carry the strong pungent properties and act as ionic and cationic dual behavior in the water .They are germicide and slightly effected on the human skin
Washing powders contents divided into three constituent which are
Chemicals of this group easily dissolve in the water to reduce the surface tension values. The detergent contents easily reach to the fibers and react with grease ,oils and soils partials to dissolve in the water .To producing the foam and softness is the primary cleaning function of the detergent.
Widely used for the stability of the foam with increasing the detergent properties. It is responsible to dissolve the other contents in the heavy water also to prevent the natural hghremoving particles again with the fiber.
Associated with a little builders properties providing the alkalinity in the powder working as antirust for machine.
Some of the basic chemicals for detergent makings are
Alkali chemical help in a cleaning action use as a builder.
Use as filler and work as rust inhibitor with a slight building action.
Sodium tri polyphosphate(STP,STPP)
A very fine builder which produce foam in heavy and light water with a highly cleaning property especially for white clothes.
Sodium meta silicate
Add as a filler for mixing the dry powders.
To prevent the dust and soil particles accumulate with cloths as it works as stain releasing agent.
Reduce the alkalinity and work as builder in light water.
It has the ability to control the heavy water.
To produce whiteness and brighten in the cloths with 0.3 to 0.4 % add in any detergent formulation.
Perfuming and flavoring agents
Organic compounds make the washing process more fragrant and scented to produce the skin softness.